Ensemble PHOENIX in its 20th season, presents the Israeli premiere of LA CADUTA DELL' ANGELI, a 17th century Neapolitan oratorio by Francesco Rossi.
Following the biblical apocryphal book of Enoch, LA CADUTA DELL' ANGELI depicts the rebellion of angels led by Lucifer (then an angel of light = luce), their defeat by Archangel Michael and his army of good angels, and their fall into the abyss.
As an angel of light, Lucifer's character is allocated to a soprano; after the fall he becomes a bariton!
Choirs of demons and angels opposing each other, exuberant dances and poignant chromaticism make this a colorful work and a great entertainment.
The program is complemented by a Neapolitan cantata by Cristofaro Caresana on the same theme, and instrumental music by Pietro Andrea Ziani, Maurizio Cazzati, Giovanni Battista Vitali and Bernardo Storace.
PHOENIX's partners in this project are:
The Ludovice Ensemble from Portugal
The Vocal Department of The Buchmann-Mehta School of Music of the Tel Aviv University, directed by Prof. Sharon Rostorf-Zamir.
Ensemble PHOENIX on early instruments: Kobi Rubinstein, Noam Gal - baroque violin; Alma Mayer - corneto, Inbar Salomon - recorder; Inbar Navot - baroque bassoon; Lucia D'Anna - tenor viol; Tal Arbel - bass viol; Yuval Vilner - baroque guitar, Gio Sthel - violone
Conductor, Musical director: Myrna Herzog
With the support of The Embassy of Portugal in Tel Aviv and the Italian Cultural Institute in Haifa
The main piece of the program is a southern Italian oratorio by Don Francesco Rossi (Bari 1625 - ca 1690), named LA CADUTA DELL' ANGELI (The Fall of the Angels), a 6 voices.It describes the War of Angels referred by the biblical apocryphal book of Enoch: before the Creation, two armies of angels competed for power: that of Adonai, led by the Archangel Michael and that of Lucifer, commander of the rebel angels. The first is victorious and the demons are thrown down from heavens into the abyss. As an angel of light, Lucifer's character is allocated to a soprano; after the fall he becomes a bariton! Choirs of demons and angels opposing each other, exuberant dances and poignant chromaticism make this a colorful work.
The composer, Don (Nicolò) Francesco (de) Rossi (Bari 1627 - ca 1699) is thought to have studied in Naples at Conservatorio di Sant'Onofrio a Porta Capuana, where he worked as chapel master from 1669 to 1672. Some of his sacred works are preserved there, including LA CADUTA DELL' ANGELI. Returning to Bari, he was elected canon of the catedral and appointed chapel-master in 1677. Rossi later traveled to Venice where he composed operas (1686), and was elected choirmaster of the Ospedale dei Mendicanti in 1689, retiring in 1699.
Also in the program, the Neapolitan cantata LA VITTORIA DEL INFANTE, a 6 singers by Cristofaro Caresana (c.1640-1709) - who during 1667- 1690 happened to be the director of the same Sant'Onofrio Conservatory where Rossi worked. Caresana was born in Venice, where he studied under Pietro Andrea Ziani, before moving to Naples late in his teens. In Caresana's cantata, Lucifer wishes once more to wage war on Heavens, and is again defeated. Caresana music is full of exuberant energy, beauty, with lots of Neapolitan sentiment. It has great dynamic contrasts in the interplay of soloists and vocal ensemble, all supported by wonderful instrumental writing.
The program is complemented by 17th century Italian instrumental music by Bernardo Storace (c.1637 – c.1707), probably a Neapolitan who worked as vicemaestro di cappela to the Senate of nearby Messina in Sicily, then an important cultural pole; and by musicians who were all interconected: Giovanni Battista Vitali (1632 -1692), one of the most interesting Italian composers in the field of instrumental music before Corelli’s era, worked in Bologna and Modena, and was a student of Maurizio Cazzati (1632 -1692), who in his turn worked as maestro di capella in the musical chapel of Santa Maria Maggiore in Bergamo - one of the most outstanding of the North-Italian ecclesiastical institutions – where he was succeeded by Pietro Andrea Ziani (1616-1684); Ziani, on his side had been Caresana’s teacher, and spent the later phase of his life in Naples, working as organist and maestro di cappella at the Naples court, and after 1677 as a teacher at the same Sant' Onofrio Conservatory where Rossi studied and worked, and that Caresana directed.
Our partner in this production is the Ludovice Ensemble, a Portuguese early music group, based in Lisbon, that focuses on the research and historical performance of Baroque chamber music on original instruments. It was founded by Fernando Miguel Jalôto and Joana Amorim in 2005, and it has since become a reference in the Portuguese Early Music scene.
Its programs combine creativity, a passionate approach to the repertoire and a historically informed interpretation. The ensemble’s performances are inflamed by a Mediterranean sense of drama and rhetorical delivery appropriate to the Baroque cultural inheritance they revive.
The group gathers some of the best Portuguese performers - all specialized in historical performance practice - in collaboration with foreign artists of exceptional quality, not just musicians, but also actors, dancers and mimes.
The group's name pays homage to the German architect and goldsmith Johann Friedrich Ludwig (1673-1752) – known in Portugal as João Frederico Ludovice, who worked for King John V of Portugal. His masterpiece is the National Palace-Convent of Mafra – Portugal’s main Baroque monument, immortalized in José Saramago's novel "Baltasar and Blimunda".
We are indebted to Silvia Allessandra Giummo and Giacomo Contro for their invaluable help regarding Rossi's Caduta dell'Angeli.
Rui Silva - historical percussion and adufe artisan.
Born in Coimbra, Rui studied classical percussion at the Espinho Professional Music School and completed his BA at the Oporto School of Music and Performing Arts. Rui specialized in Historical Percussion after taking the Master of Arts in Interpretación of Musica Antigua - Historical Percusion at ESMUC / UAB (Barcelona, Spain) , coming first in his class under the supervision of the legendary Spanish percussionist Pedro Estevan.
Rui is a member of the Ludovice Ensemble (Portugal) under the direction of Miguel Jalôto, who is PHOENIX partner in this project. Rui performs also with Sete Lágrimas Consort of Ancient and Contemporary Music , with whom he has recorded several CDs, and with Capella Sanctae Crucis, Nouvelles Musiques Anciennes du Portugal, directed by Tiago Simas Freire, with whom he has recently recorded the CD “Zuguambé” (Harmonia Mundi), with extraordinary pieces and an unprecedented music collection sourced at the School of Santa Cruz de Coimbra's Monastery.
Rui's performative practice is strongly influenced by the oral tradition of the 'adufe', a traditional square frame drum from Portugal, and which he has introduced into various musical languages and contexts. He has recently developed the concept of "Modern Adufe" as a way of exploring and defining new performing techniques for the adufe based on different traditional frame drums traditions from around the world. As part of his ilfe work and academic research, Rui has carried out consistent field work with the 'adufeiras' (women who traditionally play adufe) and artisans of the Idanha-a-Nova and Paúl region. He has observed, recorded, and analyzed the construction process, the performing and technical practice, the language (songs) and the cultural context.
Between 2012-2015, Rui ran the AL-DUFF project. During this project he taught nearly 50 workshops on traditional playing, transcribing and publishing traditional rhythms and on adufe songs, he also made presentations at conferences,authored articles, and participated in radio and television programs, and exhibitions. In 2013 Rui launched his artisan brand, "Rui Silva Adufes" for handmaking traditional adufes with an incorporated tuning system. This and other structural innovations elevate this traditional instrument to a new performative level in 21st century.
Naples, the music capital of Europe
During the baroque period, Naples was considered the music capital of Europe: as Blazio, a character in Storace's The Pirates says, "sir, the people here are all born musicians. The little children cry in tune!".
This was thanks to the huge number of talented musicians born in the city - and thanks to its four excellent music conservatories which gave them an outstanding musical education. It is for this reason that in 1774 Stephano Storace sent his 12 year old English son Stephen all the way from from London to study at Sant'Onofrio a Porta Capuana, one of those four conservatories.
Sant' Onofrio dates from 1578, and among the composers who learned or worked there, we find Don (Nicolò) Francesco (de) Rossi (Bari 1627 - ca 1699) and Cristofaro Caresana (c.1640-1709) who at some point were also its directors; Pietro Andrea Ziani (1616-1684), Niccoló Jommelli, Giovanni Paisiello, Niccolò Piccinni, Antonio Sacchini (four of the great names in the 18th century Neapolitan music) andof course Stephen Storace (1762-1796).
The original building still stands, very near to Porta Capuana, just across the street on the north side of the old Vicaria, the tribunale, the Naples Hall of Justice. It is presently occupied by the Police, which does not allow visitation.
Charles Burney (1726-1814) described a day in S. Onofrio, Wednesday, 31 October 1770:
"...This morning I went with young Oliver to his Conservatorio of St. Onofrio, and visited all the rooms where the boys practise, sleep, and eat. On the first flight of stairs was a trumpeter, screaming upon his instrument till he was ready to burst; on the second was a french-horn, bellowing in the same manner. In the common practising room there was a Dutch concert, consisting of seven or eight harpsichords, more than as many violins, and several voices, all performing different things, and in different keys: other boys were writing in the same room; but it being holiday time, many were absent who usually study and practise there together.
The beds, which are in the same room, serve as seats for the harpsichords and other instruments. Out of thirty or forty boys who were practising, I could discover but two that were playing the same piece: some of those who were practising on the violin seemed to have a great deal of hand. The violin-cellos practise in another room: and the flutes, hautbois, and other wind instruments, in a third, except the trumpets and horns, which are obliged to fag, either on the stairs, or on the top of the house.
The only vacation in these schools, in the whole year, is in autumn, and that for a few days only: during the winter, the boys rise two hours before it is light, from which time they continue their exercise, an hour and a half at dinner excepted, till eight o’clock at night; and this constant perseverance, for a number of years, with good teaching, must produce great musicians."